Submitted: 10 Nov 2018
Revised: 07 Jan 2019
Accepted: 09 Jan 2019
First published online: 18 Jan 2019
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Int J Enteric Pathog. 2019;7(1):9-14.
doi: 10.15171/ijep.2019.03
  Abstract View: 894
  PDF Download: 665

Research Article

Study of VanA, B, C, D, E Genes in Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci Isolated from Retailed Dried Vegetables in Tehran, Iran

Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard 1,2, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal 1,2 * ORCiD, Maryam Abbaspour 1, Zahra Rajabi 2

1 Division of Food Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Food Microbiology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background: Enterococcus spp. are resistant to many antimicrobials including vancomycin. They may be found in foods and water. Objective: In the current study, van genes were investigated in vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated from dried vegetables in Tehran, Iran.

Materials and Methods: In this study, 140 dried vegetable samples were collected from local retailers in Tehran, Iran, 2015. Bacteria were isolated using culture, biochemistry and molecular methods. Susceptibility of the enterococcal isolates was assessed to six antibiotics of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and vancomycin using Kirby-Bauer method. The prevalence of vanA, B, C, D, E genes was molecularly studied in VRE using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing techniques.

Results: Of 140 dried vegetable samples, Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated from 84 samples (60%). Totally, 48% of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Of 41 vancomycinresistant enterococcal isolates, vanA was found in 23 (56.1%), vanB in 8 (19.5%) and vanC in 2 (4.9%) isolates. No vanD or vanE was found in the isolates. Results have shown a high rate of contamination with Enterococcus spp., especially VRE, in dried vegetables in Tehran.

Conclusion: Therefore, further hygienic regulations such as personal training and food processing, transportation, storage and marketing must be routine in food industries and local retailers

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