Submitted: 12 Dec 2013
Revised: 19 Feb 2014
Accepted: 02 Mar 2014
First published online: 05 Oct 2016
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Int J Enteric Pathog. 2014;2(2): e16831.
doi: 10.17795/ijep16831
  Abstract View: 1358
  PDF Download: 1008

Research Article

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Environmental Enterobacteriaceae Isolates From Karun River, Iran

Neda Nazarzadeh Zaree 1 * , Nerssy Nassirabady 2, Amir Tajbakhsh 2

1 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran
2 Department of Biology, Faculty Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, IR Iran
*Corresponding author: Neda Nazarzadeh Zaree, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran, Tel: +98-6412221911, Fax: +98-6412221911, Email: yasbeauty63@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Antibiotic resistance among bacteria is a worldwide problem. Enterobacteriaceae resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is typically caused by the production of β-lactamases.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Karun River in Iran.

Materials and Methods: A total of 600 water samples were collected from nine stations along Karun River in Iran, during spring and summer of 2012. In this research, different waterborne bacterial pathogens were isolated and identified using the membrane filtration technique and analytical profile index system for Enterobacteriaceae (API 20E). Then, disk diffusion method (CLSI, 2010; M2-A9) was used for testing the antibiotic resistance susceptibility. Enterobacteriaceae genera were tested against sixteen antibiotics: ampicillin, carbencillin, methicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, vancomycin, amikacin, ofloxacin, kanamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, chloramphenicol, and amoxycillin.

Results: The results of this study suggested that the level of fecal contamination in Karun water was very high. Among the isolated Enterobacteriaceae, there were 287 strains of (65%) Escherichia coli, 162 (27%) Enterobacter aeogenes, 73 (12.16%) Citrobacter freundii, 58 (9.66%) Proteus vulgaris, and 20 (3.3%) Salmonella typhi. All Enterobacteriaceae isolates showed 100% resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, methicillin, vancomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline. They failed to exhibit resistance to norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Other antibiotics showed intermediate activity, and some isolates were resistant.

Conclusions: Detection of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli) in more than 75% of water samples indicates the possible presence of other bacteria causing infectious diseases.

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental Enterobacteriaceae isolates form Karun River in Iran.

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