Submitted: 18 Aug 2018
Revised: 27 Oct 2018
Accepted: 29 Oct 2018
First published online: 12 Nov 2018
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Int J Enteric Pathog. 2018;6(4):89-94.
doi: 10.15171/ijep.2018.24
  Abstract View: 1004
  PDF Download: 684

Original Article

Variation in Salmonella typhi Infection Among Local Populations in Southern Benue, Nigeria

Peter Adikwu 1, Ebele U. Umeh 1, Charles Chidozie Iheukwumere 1, Innocent Okonkwo Ogbonna 1, Philip Sule Awodi 2, Godwin Attah Obande 3 * ORCiD

1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
2 Science Laboratory Technology Department Benue State Polytechnic, Ugbokolo, Benue State, Nigeria
3 Department of Microbiology, Federal University Lafia, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria Int J Enteric Pathog. 2018 November;6(4):89-94 ©


Background: Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi is endemic in many developing countries.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of S. typhi in patients attending secondary health centers within the 9 local government areas (LGAs) of Benue.

Materials and Methods: A total of 1022 stool samples, from 583 (57.0%) males and 439 (43.0%) females were collected from patients diagnosed using Widal reaction between August 2016 and July 2017. Selenite broth, Salmonella-Shigella agar, Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar and Bismuth Sulfite agar were used for isolation. S. typhi was identified using cultural and biochemical characteristics. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were performed to analyze the collated data.

Results: A high prevalence of S. typhi (43.7%, n = 447) and significant differences were observed (P < 0.05) in the study site, age, sex and month of sampling. Oju LGA accounted for the highest rate, 64.2% (n = 123). S. typhi infection was highest in patients aged ≤10 years (52.7%, n = 243). Males had a significantly higher isolation frequency of 46.8% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.321, CI = 1.027–1.700) than females (39.6%). Isolation rates were higher between January (50.0%, n = 31) and May (61.8%, n = 76). Some Widal positive samples were negative for S. typhi upon culturing.

Conclusion: These findings suggest the existence of a significant public health hazard which can negatively affect the livelihood of rural dwellers. There is a need for a review of the approach to the diagnoses of typhoid fever in the study area. Increased efforts at sanitation and personal hygiene are advocated.

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