Submitted: 30 Jul 2013
Revised: 08 Apr 2014
Accepted: 06 May 2014
First published online: 05 Oct 2016
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Int J Enteric Pathog. 2014;2(3): e13927.
doi: 10.17795/ijep13927
  Abstract View: 825
  PDF Download: 444

Research Article

Microbial Pollution of Hand Washing Liquids in Kurdistan University Hospitals

Esmail Ghahramani 1, Afshin Maleki 1, Shadi Kohzadi 1 * , Hozan Loqmani 1, Mohammad Noori Sephr 2, Mansur Zarrabi 2, Rashid Ramazan Zadeh 3

1 Department of Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences Sanandaj, IR Iran
2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, IR Iran
3 Department of Cellular and Molecular Research Center and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran
*Corresponding author: Shadi Kohzadi, Department of Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran. Tel: 98-9181842900, Email:


Background: Many nosocomial infections are transferred by hand contact between personnel. Among basic actions to control such infections is the investigation of hygienic conditions of washing hands with hand washing liquids. In such situations, if the hand washing agents are contaminated with pathogenic agents, they may lead to the development of nosocomial infections.

Objectives: In this study, we investigated infections in hand washing liquids in public hospital of Sanandaj during 2011.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in public hospitals of Sanandaj. The type and species of microorganisms from 52 samples were examined and diagnosed. Statistical analysis was done using Excel with frequency distribution tables and descriptive tests.

Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (47.36%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.31%) had the highest frequencies and Escherichia coli (5.26%) had the lowest isolation rate.

Conclusions: The results indicated that the level of contamination at public hospitals of Sanandaj was very high (59.37%). An important finding of this study was the need for appropriate training because we observed liquid containers without lids or with unsuitable lids.

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