Submitted: 01 Oct 2016
Revised: 29 Oct 2016
Accepted: 31 Oct 2016
First published online: 15 Nov 2016
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Int J Enteric Pathog. 2016;4(4): e37103.
doi: 10.15171/ijep.2016.13
  Abstract View: 657
  PDF Download: 2130
  Full Text View: 649

Original Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities of Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, and Citrus grandis Against Pathogenic Bacteria

Sholeh Saeb 1,2, Mansour Amin 3,2 * , Reza Seyfi Gooybari 4, Nasrin Aghel 4

1 Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Health Research Institute, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
4 Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapour University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
*Corresponding author: Mansour Amin, Address: Health Research Institute, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine , Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Tel: +98- 9163051096, Fax:+98-6133332036, Email: mnsamin@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: Microorganisms resistant to most antibiotics are rapidly spreading, and there is an
urgent and continuous need for novel antimicrobial compounds. The genus Citrus belongs to the
family Rutaceae has many biologically active secondary metabolites.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial activity of essential oil and
extract of Lemon (Citrus limon), Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and Pummelo (Citrus grandis)
against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi.
Materials and Methods: The fresh Citrus leaves were shade-dried and powdered. Antimicrobial
metabolites were extracted from them by 80% methanol for extract and using a Clevenger-type
apparatus for essential oil. Eight different concentrations of the each leaf extract and essential oil
were prepared. The antimicrobial susceptibility assay of Citrus leaves metabolites were subjected
against four bacterial strains by agar disc diffusion and E-test method.
Results: In this study, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of different Citrus leaf extracts
were determined against all four food-borne pathogens. The C. grandis leaf essential oil had
potent antimicrobial activity against all four pathogens, and the C. limon leaf essential oil was
effective on Gram-positive bacteria. S. typhi was resistant against two leaves essential oils.
Conclusions: The results showed that there was no antimicrobial activity effect in all extracts
on tested bacteria. In this study, the antibacterial effect of essential oil of Citrus leaves on four
strains of pathogenic microorganisms was confirmed. The C. grandis leaf essential oil had the
most powerful antimicrobial properties, suggesting its potential application as natural
preservative in foods or an effective medicine against different pathogenic microbes.
Key words: Antibacterial activity, E-test, Citr
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